Pattern Making As an Art Decorative Technique

A pattern is an organised arrangement of the elements of design such as dots, lines, shapes, textures, colours etc. on a surface using any appropriate technique for decoration. Pattern making is an experimental process since the resultant designs cannot be predicted by the artist.

Patterns can be used as designs for paper bags, clothes, greeting cards, fringes, garlands or tassels, and pop-up. There are several techniques in pattern making. Examples of pattern making techniques are Sponging, Veining, Blowing, Spraying, Spattering, Stippling, String Pulling, Wax-resist/crayon batik, Marbling, Scribbling, Rubbing-in, Rubbing-out etc.

Sponging

This technique of pattern making involves the use of sponge as the principal tool for the creation of the patterns. The sponge can be laid or spread on the material (such as paper or cloth). The paint or ink is then dabbed with foam at the open areas of the sponge. The paint or ink can also be sprayed onto material after laying the sponge. The nett patterns or diamond shaped patterns of the sponge would appear on the material. Another technique is immersing the sponge in the paint or ink and rolling it on the material or paper to create the patterns.

Spattering

This form of pattern making involves the application of paint in a liquid form by splashing the paint on the surface of the material to create interesting patterns. Sometimes, the tips of brushes are loaded with colour or ink and the thumb is used in splashing the colour onto the material such as paper. The splashing of the coloured pigment or paint can be done with a piece of foam or brush loaded with paint.

Spraying

This is the application of paint or colour spilt through the tiny holes of a spray diffuser or atomiser. The spray can or container is filled with different coloured pigments or ink and is sprayed one at a time onto the material in several ways to create interesting designs. Surfaces of
Papers for writing calligraphy and other forms of wall hangings are decorated with spray patterns in varieties of colours.

Stippling

This is the use of a drawing tool or implement in creating series of dots in an organised pattern on a material. Marking tools such as pencils, crayons, markers and pens can be used in creating interesting patterns of dots on paper and cards. This form of pattern making can be used to decorate the background of cards to be used for greeting cards, certificates and other forms of wall hangings. Pointed metallic tools such as gouges, chisels and texturing nails can be used in creating decorative textures in the form of dots on backgrounds of wood, clay and leather.

String Pulling

This is the technique of creating patterns on a material by the use of strings. These strings are immersed in a colour pigment or ink. The coloured string is then pulled for the colours to spill on the material to create decorative patterns on the paper.

Scribbling

This method of creating patterns involves the creation of random abstract lines with a marking tool, generally without ever lifting the drawing device off of the paper. The scribbles which are often created with different coloured marking tools result in eye-catching and attractive patterns on papers. These can be used in producing designs on paper bags, garlands, greeting cards etc.

Paper marbling

This is a method of aqueous (water) surface design used in producing patterns. The patterns are the result of colour usually, oil paint poured to float on either the surface of plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to an absorbent surface, such as paper or fabric. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. It can also be used as designs on papers to be used in producing paper bags.

Wax Resist/ Crayon Batik

This form of pattern making involves the use of wax in resisting parts of a paper or fabric and either applying colour or ink on the entire surface of the material. After the paint or ink is dried on the surface of the material, the wax is scratched off or removed to create interesting patterns. Another technique is applying the waxed design on the surface of the material and immersing it in a paint, dye or ink solution. The wax is freed off the material after the paint or dye is dried to create the patterns. Coloured crayons can be used for creating attractive patterns on materials before paint, dye or ink is applied.

How To Create Two and Three Compositional Effects In Art

Two-dimensional artworks are works that have length and breadth. They do not have depth or height. They are flat and are viewed and appreciated as such. Examples of two-dimensional arts include photographs, posters, mosaic etc. In two-dimensional compositions, the artist has to give particular attention to how the various elements of design are organized or arranged. Their arrangement should be governed by the various principles of design in the given space. For instance, the text and images in the picture area should be organized in such a way that there will be balance, dominance, rhythm, unity etc. at work. If serious thought and considerable time are given to the way the various elements in a two-dimensional work is composed, the entire work will be seen as a unified whole.

A three-dimensional art form refers to any art form that has height, breadth, depth and can be viewed and appreciated from different directions. They are free-standing and are sometimes referred to as ‘works in the round’. Examples of three-dimensional works include basketry, sculpture-in-the-round, ceramic ware, bead etc. In three-dimensional compositions, the arrangements of the various parts or components of the design should be guided by the principles of design. Also, in creating three-dimensional art forms consideration is given to the relationships and agreement of shapes, space, scale, weight, proportion, balance, variety, rhythm, etc. Creation of three-dimensional art forms involves knowledge and skill in construction and building of forms, perspective as well as the mastery way of handling tools and materials.

Two and three-dimensional works are much related. For instance, before all three-dimensional works are built and constructed, they are first represented in two-dimensional drawings from various angles and views. This is done to envision how the actual three-dimensional works will look like. Two-dimensional designs give us the platform to analyze and select those aspects of our environment which motivate us to make three-dimensional arts.

The relationship or similarities between two and three-dimensional forms are easily recognized in the identification, selection, and examination of visual information derived from the environment, the exploration and the use of tools and materials in producing artifacts as well as the feeling that arouses in us when we see the finished artwork.

A problem needs to be identified that would require the production of a three-dimensional art form. For example, there is the need of a leather clutch bag to house some items used by an artist. Several observations of both natural and manmade objects found in the environment are made to accrue ideas for the designing of the clutch bag. Through the various stages of idea development of the natural or manmade object selected, several designs are obtained through additions and subtractions of the parts of the original design. Recall maintaining the original concept or main parts of the original design while going through the various stages in idea development. The appropriate design that demonstrates the artist’s ingenuity or creativity and best addresses the problem identified are selected.

The final sketch of the design is drawn in a two-dimensional form showing various views of the design. This paves the way for the building of the actual clutch bag with the appropriate tools and materials thus leather in a solid three-dimensional form.

There are series of activities that are involved in both two and three-dimensional compositions. These are:

1. Visual investigation: This refers to the exploration of the visual world through keen and critical observation of nature with the eye. These explorations of the eye are put on paper in the form of drawing whether in two or three-dimensional composition.

2. Learning of skills: Skills in production processes are essential in both two and three-dimensional compositions. For instance, a skill in layout designing is required in all compositions be it two or three dimensions.

3. Problem-solving: Both two and three-dimensional compositions are made with the view of addressing or solving an identified problem. Finished works of art are produced as a result in arresting those problems.

The Health, Political, Educational and Economic Roles of The Graphic Artist

The Graphic artist is a visual communicator whose roles is quintessential in the areas of health, politics, education and economic advancement of a society. These unique duties are clearly discussed to show how effective any artist taking up this role can perform his responsibilities in the society.

Health Roles

The health personnel and workers are identified through the dress that they wore. The various medicines that they administer are nicely kept in well-designed packages to protect them from spoilage. The hospitals and clinics where patients are cared for are a product of contemporary African architecture. The hazardous chemicals, safety tools, and equipment used by the health personnel in discharging their duties are clearly labeled by him to avoid wrong applications and injury. Comprehensive instructions on how to use the medicine given at the health centres are clearly written on the attractive labels attached to their containers designed by him.

The health education which involves sensitizing the general public on deadly diseases and how to prevent them is done through communication tools such as posters, banners, flyers, and handbills etc. The locations of these health centres are made easy through signboards and billboards.

Political Roles

The activities of the various political parties in the country are made possible through the use of works by the Graphic designer. For instance, the emblems and logos with distinguishing colour schemes that help us to distinguish one political party from the other are as a result of him. Moreover, each of the parties makes the general public know of their plans for the nation as well as their campaigns through the use of posters, banners, signboards signposts, flyers, handbills and billboards which are all works of art. What about the locations to the various party offices? Is it not as a result of products done by the Graphic artist? In addition, the various T-shirts, caps, and other paraphernalia that party activists and supporters put on during political rallies and meetings are all products of art. In fact, without the products by him, political activities cannot be carried out.

Educational Roles

Teaching and learning activities in the various educational institutions are effectively carried out by the use of visual communication products. The uniforms and costumes that are worn by students that bear the emblems and logos designed by him help us to identify students of the various educational institutions. The numerous colourful and illustrative teaching aids that assist greatly in teaching and learning activities. School programs and locations of schools are broadcasted and made known to the general public through products such as banners, signboards, posters, and billboards. Other products like books and other stationery materials affect the teaching and learning processes directly. Announcements, school programs, and general information are made known to students through graphic communication tools such as posters, banners, handbills etc.

Economic Roles

Graphic design products are traded to earn income. People invest in the collections of works of art. The field of Graphic design also offers various employment avenues for members of the society such as Book Illustrator, Poster designer, Package designer, Cartoonist, Graphic animator, Stage designer, Printmaker etc. More importantly is the role Graphic design plays in the success of other trades. It helps in the marketing of products and services. Locations and other relevant information of firms and companies, as well as the products they produce, are nicely depicted on signboards and billboards. Posters, handbills, and flyers assist in the promotion of sales of products.

Cottage industries that help in reducing the unemployment numbers in the country are promoted and preserved through productions in Graphic design. Setting up a cottage industry in the area does not require a lot of capital when compared to other sectors like medicine, agriculture etc. With the acquired manual skills, together with few locally manufactured tools and raw materials, the Graphic designer can produce several creative works that he can sell to make a living in his own house. This helps in reducing the unemployment rates in the country.